DISPLACEMENT 2,050 tons
LENGTH OVERALL 376 ft. 6 in.
BEAM 39 ft. 4 in.
SPEED 39 knots plus
COMPLEMENT 300 plus
USS BOYD was commissioned May 8, 1943, at the Bethlehem Steel Company Yard, Terminal Island, California, by Captain S. R. Heim, USN Commandant Navel Operating Base, Terminal Island. Commanding Officer was U.S.G. Sharp Jr., Lieutenant Commander, USN. The ship was named in honor of Clark Joseph BOYD, USN who was a volunteer in the expedition that destroyed the U.S. Frigate Philadelphia after she had been run aground and had fallen into the hands of the enemy in Tripoli Harbor (1804-1805). The BOYD underwent routine shakedown in San Pedro and San Diego Area and on July 14, 1943, proceeded to Pearl Harbor for duty with the U.S. Pacific Fleet.
After a few hours stop in Pearl Harbor, the ship departed for Noumea New Caledonia, stopped at Suva, Fiji Islands enroute, for fuel. On 21 July BOYD arrived at Noumea, fueled and departed for Pearl Harbor acting as an escort with HALFORD and CONVERSE for H.M.S. VICTORIOUS and USS INDIANA. On 9 August, arrived at Pearl Harbor where until the 25th. BOYD went through concentrated period of training. At the conclusion of these exercises, BOYD departed as part of the screen of Task Force 11, which was formed for the purpose of occupying Baker Island. During this operation BOYD acted as one of the screening ships for CVL’s which provided air cover for the operation. On 16 September, the island being secured, BOYD departed for Pearl Harbor.
Arrived 21 September and from that time until 29 September acted as escort for USS YORKYOWN and COWPENS during their training of air groups and crews. On that day BOYD departed with Fast Carrier Task Group to hit Wake Island. Strikes on the group were conducted October 5th and 6th and the Task Group returned to Pearl Harbor Navy Yard, remaining there until the 10th. On that date she departed with Task Group 50.2 for Gilbert Islands operation. First strikes were conducted against Makin Island on the 19th and 20th of November. On the 25th enemy torpedo planes attacked the formation dropping flares, but infliction no damage. The following night enemy torpedo planes again attacked. BOYD fired on one group of 10-12 planes. Again no ships were damaged. An hour after the attack had concluded, BOYD made surface radar contact and closed target. On approach, radar pips disappeared from the screen and a sound search was conducted. Two depth charges patterns were dropped. Fifteen minutes after the second drop, a loud underwater explosion was heard and the following morning planes from the ENTERPRISE reported a large oil slick in the vicinity. BOYD returned to the formation. Supporting operations continued until 6 December when Task Group 50.8 was formed, consisting of six new battleships, MONTEREY, BUNKER HILL, and 12 Destroyers. Rear Admiral X.A. LIE in the WASHINGTON was Task Group Commander. The Task group departed from the central Gilbert Island for the South Pacific Area with an aerial and shore bombardment of Nauru scheduled enroute. Before sunrise on 8 December in a position 40 miles north of Nauru, the carriers and their screen separated from the shore bombardment force of six battleships and destroyers bombarded the island for approximately 45 minutes. BOYD fired on cantilever crane pier and adjacent buildings. Several hits were observed: shortly after the entire island was covered with smoke, and several large fires started. Light anti-aircraft fire was noted during attacks of our planes but no return fire on the surface forces.
At 1033 while returning to form up with carrier group BOYD left formation as ordered by Commander Task Group 50.8 to pick up survivors of a plane crash first reported 12 miles southwest of island. At 1038 a raft was reported in position 2 miles west of island. During approach, a plane reported to CTG (Commander Task Group) 50.8 who direct BOYD to proceed on assigned rescue and 3 planes were ordered to assist in the search. At 1130 plane dropped smoke float near raft, and BOYD made approach. At 1125 a lookout reported object in water, which looked like a man waving his hand in the air. At 1140 BOYD stopped between life raft, which was carrier plane type and upside down, and the island; object was identified as smoke float or float light. At 1142 two shells hit the ship, on exploding in forward engine room, shearing or puncturing all steam lines and main power distribution board, the second exploding inside #1 stack. BOYD immediately commenced maneuvering radically (chasing salvos) and began counter battery fire using manual control. In retiring, ship was straddled at least five times, the second four gun salvo exploding close aboard to port damaging guns 24 and 26 and piercing an air flask of an after torpedo. In this attach all personnel of the forward engine room, with the exception of one MM2 who was seriously burned, were killed. Damage control measures were taken to plug the hole in the side and pump water from the forward engine room space. Total casualties were one officer and 11 men killed, 8 wounded. Burial of 10 of these was held on 9 December. Two died later after transfer to ALABAMA and were interred at Espiritu Santo.
On 9 December on 0800, date changed to 10 December. In the afternoon Commander GORSKY, Chaplain Corps, USN came aboard and administered last rites to the deceased, while BOYD was receiving fuel and reserve feed water from the USS WASHINGTON. Arrived in Espirtu Santo 12 December and tied up alongside USS DIXIE for temporary repairs of damage. On the return journey stops were made at Pago Pago and Pearl Harbor for fuel.
On 2 January the ship entered San Francisco, anchored for Department of Agriculture inspection and preceded to pier #33 Naval Ammunition Depot, Mare Island where all ammunition was transferred. The next day BOYD entered the Navy Yard and commenced repairs.
During yard availability the crew was given leave of 21 days, half the personnel being away at a time. On 10 March dock trials were held and on the 14th post repair trials then back to yard for the final check and on 18 March BOYD left San Francisco behind and set course for Pearl Harbor with STEPHEN POTTER and NORMAN SCOTT.
BOYD arrived in Pearl Harbor 23 March and remained in that area until the end of the month for training consisting primarily of gunnery and torpedo exercises. On 1 April BOYD set sail for Majuro, Manila Island, with task group 12.4 consisting for MARKAB, BARNES, NEHANTA BAY, and screening units. Entered Majuro 7 April and joined Task Group 58.1
On the same day Commander N.M. Sweetser, USN, Commander Destroyer Division NINETY-TWO shifted his flag from BRADFORD (DD545) to BOYD. BOYD remained with 58.1 during strikes against Hollandia, New Guinea, and Truk. The first of these strikes was in support of Army occupation of Hollandia and other strong points along the New Guinea coast. During these operations a number of enemy planes were sighted but no attacks on own forces were made. On 25 April our carrier fighters shot down a "Betty" and BOYD was ordered to search for survivors in the area. On arriving at the scene this ship went through the almost unique experience of capturing Jap flight personnel. Four were taken in a boat sent out from the ship. One was quite anxious to be rescued, the others three, who were floating on a red and white rubber life raft, seemed quite unconcerned but were convinced that capture was the proper procedure. On rejoining the formation, transfer of the prisoners was made to the LEXINGTON, which was operating with Task Group 58.3. On 29 April the BOYD our aircraft struck Truk and the next day 9 cruisers and 8 destroyers including the BOYD bombarded Satawan. During the bombardment a torpedo wake was reported to have passed a few feet astern of this ship heading the direction of the cruisers. No sound contacts were obtained however. On 1 May other units of Task Force 58 bombarded Ponape and following that, Task Group 58.1 reformed and left for Kwajalein Atoll, arriving on 4 May. On 6 May BOYD preceded to Majuro and two days later escorted the PETROF BAY to Pearl Harbor arriving on 13 May. On 24 May departed for Majuro, Manila Island, as an escort in Task Group 12.1 arriving and rejoined Task Group 58.1 on June.
On June sorties with Task Group 58.1 and was assigned picket duty during the air strikes on the Mariana’s in preparation for their seizure by the Amphibious Forces. During the morning of 15 June while enroute to Bonin Islands, for air strikes, BOYD with CHARRETTE sank a 1900-ton enemy merchant ship TATSUTAKWA MARU and recovered 112 of a possible 150 survivors. The remainder giving no interest of being picked up. After the Bonin raids the Task Group returned to vicinity of Mariana’s for further strikes in support of forces assaulting Saipan. On 19 June the Task Force was subjected to heavy raids.
Shortly after midnight 19 June a small flashing light was seen. On investigation, it turned out to be in the hand of Lieutenant (JG) W.C. BIRKHOLM, a fighter pilot from the LEXINGTON who had been adrift in the liferaft for about 8 hours. Later that day planes began the assault on the enemy Task Force on the enemy Task Force in the 1st battle of the Philippines Sea. The night of 20 June BOYD and CHARRETTE were, while planes were returning from attack, stationed 45 miles ahead of Task Force 58 in the direction of the enemy, acting as pickets for the directing our planes, many of which were low on fuel, back to carriers. At 0107 on the 21st, Destroyer Division NINETY-TWO commenced patrol search of the area for pilots who had made water landings. Many life rafts were recovered but all were unoccupied. The search was continued until the morning of the 22nd when BOYD rejoined Task Group 58.1.
On the afternoon of 23 June a small liferaft was sighted about 400 yards off and rescue of Lieutenant Commander PRICE, USN from COWPENS, was affected. Lieutenant Commander PRICE had been in the raft for more than 11 days. Following this further air attacks were made on Bonins during which BOYD fired on enemy planes, which was driven off to be later shot down by a friendly fighter. Task Group headed for Eniwetok on 24 June arriving on 27 June. Departed Eniwetok 30 June enroute to Bonins for further strikes. On 3 July planes struck Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima and on 4 July cruisers and destroyers bombarded Iwo Jima.
BOYD assisted in sinking landing craft and in setting fires among island planes and buildings. It was a most picturesque and effective "Forth of July" celebration. On completion of bombardment Task Group 58.1 was reformed and proceeded to Mariana’s for further air strikes.
On 6 July BOYD and BRADFORD were detached to conduct rescue patrol missions around Guam. During the mission both ships bombarded Agana Town and Orote Peninsula. BOYD hit a machine gun emplacement, damaged two buildings near
Agana, hit a pillbox and damaged a building near Agat on Orote Peninsula. While conducting fueling operations on 17 July and making main transfer to the BRADFORD a plane was seen to crash in the water. Delivery was broken off and BOYD rescued the crew. Until 24 July BOYD acted as picket ship for Task Group 58.1 during strikes on Mariana’s and then proceeded with group for air strikes on Palau and Yap, 25-27 July. The last day of strikes, BOYD and BRADFORD operated with lifeguard submarine close to Yap.
On 2 August, left vicinity of Marianas for further strikes on Chichi Jima in Bonins. On 5 August BOYD fired on enemy landing craft leaving it smoking and later in the day set course with the Task Group for Eniwetok.
From 9 August until the 29th, remained at Eniwetok, Manila Island conducting occasional gunnery and tracking exercises. Time was primarily devoted to upkeep. BOYD was now with Task Group 38.1.
Left Eniwetok, 29 August, conducted exercises and Task Group 38.1 hit Palau on 6-8 September, leaving for Mindanao on the eighth. On 9 and 10 September, Task Group hit Mindanao in air strikes, on the 12th and 14th hit Cebu and Negros. At this time Task Group 38.1 separated from the other groups of Task Force 38 and proceeded to Morotai to cover landings there. The Task Group then returned to join up with 38.2 and 38.3 and departed for air strikes against Luzon. Strikes were made on 21 and 22 September. At dawn on the 22nd while acting as the linking vessel between Task Groups, air attacks were made on our ships. Due to fouled range few shots were fired by BOYD. On 24 September, conducted air strikes at Cebu and set sail for Seadler Harbor, Manus Admiralty Islands, arriving on 28 September. Departed from Manus, on 2 October with Task Group 38.1, which conducted first strike against Okinawa in Rykus. From there the Task Group closed the Island of Formosa and conducted strikes against the island 12-14 October. During these strikes the force was under constant air attack. The night of the 13th CANBERRA was hit and the following night HOUSTON was hit.
After the latter damage occurred BOYD, COWELL, and GRAYSON were ordered to assist of HOUSTON personnel in the water. BOYD closed HOUSTON to approximately 300 yards and launched a whaleboat, which was later swamped after rescuing approximately 30 of the swimmers who were delivered COWELL. Both officers and crew remained aboard that ship. Approximately 600 men from HOUSTON had overboard when it was the thought that she was sinking. Remainder stayed after extent of the damage was determined. BOYD used cargo nets, knotted lines and swimmers to rescue 385 of the HOUSTON personnel from the water. Entire rescue was performed on moonless night while under enemy air attack. Both before and during rescue, BOYD fired on enemy planes, at lease one which was shot down. At 007, 15 October, BOSTON took HOUSTON in tow and BOYD with COWELL formed screen about them. At noon the group joined group-towing CANBERRA and formed Task Unit 30.3.1 designated as "Streamlined Bait Unit" by Admiral HALSEY.
On 16 October BOYD transferred half of the recovered personnel to the BIRMINGHAM and was in the process of delivering the reminder to MOBILE when interrupted by enemy air attacks during which HOUSTON was again hit by an aerial torpedo. Final transfer was accomplished on the afternoon of 17 October to MOBILE and Task Unit proceeded at the slow average speed of 4 knots toward ULITHI. On 24 October BOYD joined with Task Group 38.1 which was then heading towards ULITHI but which later the same day reversed course and steamed for the Philippines to assist our forces there which had made contact with the Japanese Fleet. The next day, planes from 38.1 hit enemy ships which had advanced through San Bernardine Strait. The Task Group headed for Ulithi entering the Lagoon on the 29th. On 2 November, BOYD departed with Task Group 38.1 for Luzon, for further air strikes. On 5 November, BOYD fired on target visually identified as a submarine which submerged. Proceeded for target and laid a 12-charge pattern and commenced anti-submarine operations. USS BROWN joined in search, which lasted until 1130 on 6 November. During the search both ships were subjected to heavy air attack and torpedoes were seen to cross BOYD’s bow. Search was broken off and the ship rejoined the task group. On 7 November BOYD joined Task Group 38.5 headed for Guam, arriving on 10 November. At this time Commander A.E. TEALE, USN, relieved Commander U.S.G. SHARP, Jr., USN, as commanding Officer. The ship then headed for Luzon and joined with Task Group 38.1 on 14 November. Strikes were carried out against Luzon on the 14th, 19th and 25th. The last day BOYD picked up gear from dead Japanese pilot consisting of classified enemy charts and personal effects, one chart being a secret one showing enemy airfields on Luzon. Then the Task Group returned to Ulithi arriving on the 27th. From that time until 26 December BOYD remained at or near Ulithi engaging in upkeep and exercises after which she left for Guam. Between the dates of 31 December and 22 January, BOYD acted as escort for convoys between Eniwetok, Guam, and Saipan, as escort for a U.S. submarine and in hunter-killer engagements.
On the 22nd of January BOYD formed with Iwo Jima bombardment group and bombarded on the 24th. Fired with GWYNN at enemy plane, which was shot down by GWYNN.
During the bombardment, many straddles from enemy shore batteries landed around BOYD. Evasive action was taken and the bombardment group retired. Returned to Ulithi 26 January, rescuing crew of a plane, which crashed near lagoon entrance when the ship proceeded with entering. Remained at Ulithi until 6 February when BOYD joined Task Group 51.1 and headed for Guam staying there until the 16th. On that day the ship proceeded with Task Unit 51.1.3 consisting for transports and set out for the evasion of Iwo Jima. On arrival the BOYD left transports and alternated at the screening and fire support. On the afternoon of 19 February BOYD gave fire support for the first assault waves continuing bombardment for 24 hours. During this action many shots landed close aboard BOYD. Various duties consisting of screening, fire support, radar picket and night retirement screening were performed during this operation which lasted through the end of February for this ship.
On 1 March while furnishing harassing fire for Marine assault troops the USS TERRY just ahead of the BOYD, was hit. This ship opened the counter-battery fire and then sent ship’s doctor to assist on the TERRY. Later in the day BOYD joined a task unit and departed for Saipan escorting transports. Arrived at Saipan 4 March and left for Leyte on arriving on 8 March and reporting to Commander Amphibious Group 7 at Taraguns.
On 9 March reported to Commander Task Unit 51.1.2 for duty and anchored in San Pedro Harbor. Remained in that vicinity until 21 March when departure was made for Kerama Retto, Nansei Shoto to begin the campaign for Okinawa. The BOYD at this time was in Task Force 51 and acting as a screening unit, which was composed of CVE’s. Arrived off Kerama Retto 26 March.
General screening duties were performed with the CVE’s until 7 May when the BOYD entered Kerama Retto for four days availability. On 11 May the ship departed for Hagushi anchorage, Okinawa and reported to Commander Task Group 51.2 for duty as anti-aircraft, anti-submarine and radar picket support ship. From 12 May to 16 May the BOYD acted as picket support ship. On 17 May BOYD, COWELL, and ELLISON were attacked by enemy planes near Io Shima. Planes were driven off. On 20 May in the evening USS THATCHER was seen hit by suicide plane. BOYD went to assistance, repelled further attacks, put out fires and removed wounded from THATCHER escorting her later to Kerama Retto. Performed routine screening until 25 May when the BOYD went to radar picket station. On the night of 27 May BOYD and AMMEN were attacked frequently and persistently by enemy aircraft, one of which the BOYD was credited with shooting down. The attacks lasted from 2010 27 May until 0340 28 May. On 28 May returned to Hagushi and joined inner anti-aircraft screen. On 1 June the Task Group designation was changed to 21.5. At this time the ship was anchored in Kerama Retto for 12 days availability. On 12 June proceeded to radar picket station for an uneventful 5 days. On 21 June went on picket station again and were attacked by enemy planes on 25 June BOYD with CAPERTON and LOWERY were attacked from 2215 25 June until 0200 26 June during which time the group was credited with shooting down two enemy planes. From 26 June to 3 July the ship performed routine duties and on the latter date joined Task Group 32.15 acting as support ship for mine sweeping operations in East China Sea.
From 3 July until 26 July during which the BOYD sighted and sank four enemy mines the ship acted as a screening unit for task group covering mine sweeps. On 27 July the group conducted a shipping sweep off of the China Coast, and returned to Buckner Bay on 31 July. The sweep was repeated from 1-6 August. The BOYD went through routine maneuvers with the task group spending most of the time in port at Buckner Bay until 17 August when she escorted the ST LOUIS to Subic Bay, arriving on 20 August, departing again for Okinawa on 21 August escorting the CORONIS. Reaching Buckner Bay 26 August. The ship remained at anchor there until 7 September when the BOYD departed for the west coast of the United States for overhaul.
By Directive dated January 1947, USS BOYD (DD544) was place out of commission, reserve, attached to the U.S. Pacific Reserve Fleet.
USS BOYD earned eleven battle stars on the Asiatic-Pacific Area Service Medal for participation in the following operations:
1 Star / Pacific Raids- 1943;
Wake Island Raid 5-6 October 1943
1 Star / Gilbert Islands Operations 13 November to 8 December 1943
1 Star / Asiatic- Pacific Raids- 1944
Truk, Satawan, Ponape Raid 29 April to 1 May 1944
1 Star / Hollandia Operation ( Aitape-Humboldt Bay-Tanahmerah Bay
12 April to I June 1944
1 Star / Western New Guinea Operations
Morotai Landings 11 September 1944 to 9 January 1945
1 Star / Marianas Operations
Capture and Occupation of Saipan 11 June to 10 August 1944
First Bonin Raid 16 June 1944
Battle of Philippines Sea 19-20 June 1944
Second Bonin Raid 24 June 1944
Third Boning Raid 3-4 July 1944
Capture & Occupations of Guam 12 July to 15 August 1944
Palau, Yap, Ulithi Raid 25-27 July 1944
Fourth Bonin Raid 4-5 August 1944
1 Star / Western Caroline Island Operations
Capture and occupation of the Southern Palau Islands 6 September 1944
To 14 October 1944
Assaults on the Philippine Islands 9 to 21 September 1944
1 Star / Leyte Operation
Battle of Suigao Strait 14-26 October 1944
Third Fleet supporting Operations Okinawa Attack 10 October 1944
Northern Luzon and Formosa Attacks 11 to 14 October 1944
Luzon attacks 15, 17, to 19 October; 5 to 6, 13 to 14, 19 to 25 November; and
14 to 16 December 1944
1 Star / Iwo Jima Operations
Assault and Occupations of Iwo Jima 15 February to 16 March 1945
Bombardments of Iwo Jima 11 November 1944 to 24 January 1945
1 Star / Okinawa Gunto Operations
Assault and occupations of Okinawa Gunto 24 March to 30 June 1945
1 Star / Third Fleet Operations against Japan 10 July to 5 August 1945
USS BOYD also earned the Navy Occupation Service Metal, European, for the period of 2 to 7 September 1945.
A pre-inactivation shipyard overhaul was held at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard during the period of 25 September 1945 to 28 November 1945. The vessel was subsequently placed in an "In Commission, In Reserve" Status on 15 January 1947. The vessel was overhauled at the Terminal Island Naval Shipyard during the period 8 July 1947 to 10 September 1947. The BOYD was assigned to the San Pedro Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet for permanent berthing at the U.S. Naval Base, Terminal Island California.
Activation of the vessel was commenced on 19 September 1950. The USS BOYD (DD544) was recommissioned on 24 November 1950 with Commander A.R. CZERWONKY, USN accepting her as commanding officer and was accepted by Commander Cruiser Destroyer Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet on 20 December 1950. The BOYD remained on the West Coast of the United States for shakedown and type training until 10 May 1951. On 28 May 1951 the BOYD sailed for Western Pacific for duty with the United Nations escort and Blockade Forces off the coast of Korea.
After a short period in Yokosuka, the BOYD left for duty with Task Force 77. As art of the screening body of the task force, the ship helped protect the carrier’s planes pounding enemy installations in Korea. The BOYD served with the Task Force 77 from 24 July 1951 to 3 August 1951. This period was followed by a period of upkeep and recreation in Yokosuka, Japan, which lasted from 17 August to 21 August 1951.
For a month from 22 August, the BOYD cruised in waters south of Japan. She was engaged in training for some days. This period was concluded with a patrol off the Pescadore Islands. There the BOYD took the Southern Assignment of the Formosa blockade operation, while other ships of the division patrolled the Northern sector.
On 20 September 1951, the BOYD arrived off Wonsan Harbor, Korea and shortly thereafter entered the harbor. While one of the ships that had the mission of blockading the enemy port, as well as interfering with communist shore operations, the BOYD took part in several actions. Her guns found many targets the ship was officially credited with destroying at least two bridges, a truck convoy, many bunkers and personnel concentrations. Along with destructive fire, there were occasions when the Wonsan Harbor Defense Group gave valuable illumination fire for Seventh Fleet pilots overhead. Leaving Wonsan for patrol along the East Korean coast to Sonjin, the BOYD had occasion to help rescue a pilot from the waters into which his plane had been forced down. In this assignment the BOYD coordinated the rescue efforts.
Back in Wonsan, the shore fire control party from the BOYD spent several nights on Yodo Island. They helped maintain a searchlight that had been placed there as an air backup and served to direct fire from the ships upon the harbor defenses. While on patrol near Hungnam late in September, with the aid of spotting aircraft, the BOYD fired upon a rail marshalling yard, and effectively destroyed vital portions of the installation. After this action Destroyer Division 151 of which the BOYD was the flagship, rested in Sasebo, Japan for a week.
From 16 October until 29 October, the BOYD participated in hunter killer exercises off Okinawa, and from there she went to Task Force 77 where her far eastern tour had begun some months before. On 28 November 1951, the BOYD had diversion from the routine duties of screening, when she was detached from the task force with the USS ROCHESTER (CA124) for shore bombardment. This was her last gunfire assignment of the cruise. The BOYD entered Tokyo Bay on the 9th of December as the first stop on her return to the continental United States. The BOYD refueled a Midway Island on 12 December and Pearl Harbor on the 15th of December, departed Pearl Harbor on 16 December and arrived in San Diego, California on 21 December in time for the crew to enjoy the holidays at home.
On 29 January 1952, Commander F. B. CLARKE, USN, relieved Commander A.R. CZERWONKY, USN, as Commanding Officer of the BOYD. On 30 January the BOYD departed from San Diego on a training exercise and entered the San Pedro harbor on 2 February. The BOYD entered the Long Beach Naval Shipyard for the annual overhaul, which was to last for a period of almost five months. During this period, modifications included a squadron commander’s stateroom, the installation of three high-speed 3”/50 twin mounts, an additional fire control system and numerous smaller alterations. After a successful sea trail in which the BOYD exceeded 30 knots, she departed the Long Beach area for her home ort of San Diego on 24 June, arriving in San Diego the same day.
Until 12 July, the BOYD conducted training exercises to ready her for another tour of duty in the Western Pacific and the Japan/Korea area. The BOYD departed from San Diego on 12 July for Pearl Harbor in the company with USS TINGEY (DD539), USS YARDNALL (DD541), and the USS McDERMUT (DD677), the other ships comprising Destroyer Division 151. These ships were the same as those accompanying the BOYD on her previous cruise to the Western Pacific. As before, Commander Destroyer Squadron 15 and Commander Destroyer Division 151 was aboard the flagship BOYD in the person of Captain W.E. LINAWEAVER, USN.
The BOYD arrived in Pearl Harbor on 18 July and after minor repairs at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and a period of underway training, departed for Midway Island on 26 July, arriving at Midway on 29 July. After an over-night stay, the BOYD departed for Yokosuka, Japan, in the company with the USS BADOENG STRAIT (CVE116) arriving on 6 August. After a three-day voyage repair period the BOYD departed for Sasebo, Japan and arrived on 11 August. The BOYD left Sasebo on 12 August for Korea with the squadron commander aboard assuming the additional duty of Commander Task Group 95.2 and who’s nickname being the "Governor of Korea".
On 13 August, the BOYD arrived off Wonsan Harbor, Korea, in the company with the USS TINGEY, joining up with the UN forces whose task it was to patrol and blockade the North Korean coastline and to furnish fire support. On arrival, the BOYD, part of the Task Element 95.21 entered Wonsan Harbor, then held and fortified by the North Koreans, and began her duties, which consisted of blockading the harbor, harassing enemy installations, preventing transportation activity in the vicinity and bombarding targets spotted by the U. S. Marines stationed in one of the harbor islands as fire control party. During the period from August 13 to August 17, the BOYD participated in several call fire missions sending 216 rounds of five-inch ammunition into enemy installations.
The BOYD was relieved in Wonsan Harbor on 17 August and that night made the first of her many visits during her stay to Ch’oho, Korea where the communist supply trains run next to the sea and made almost perfect targets.
During the daylight hours, the BOYD patrolled as far north as 40 miles of the Russian border and as far south as the bomb line, but each night would find the BOYD back at Ch’oho playing cat and mouse with the communist trains. On 21 August, the BOYD spotted a mine floating in the water and while exploring the mine was fired at by an enemy long battery, straddling the ship, but doing no damage. During the morning on 25 August, the BOYD sighted and picked up 16 North Koreans from a sampan afloat off Humgnam, Korea who had set out deliberately to surrender as prisoners. They were transferred t the island and garrison at Yodo, Wonsan. On 26 August, the BOYD detected a communist train just south of Ch’oho, which was immediately taken under fire. The train was stopped, tow medium secondary explosions ere observed, and the engine smoking heavily was withdrawn behind a hill out of gunfire range.
Returning from an uneventful operation at Ch’oho with the ROK Navy PC 705 during the morning of 28 August, the BOYD sighted survivors of the USS SARSI (ATF111), which has been sunk during the night by a floating mine. The sinking had not been reported as the ship had gone down before any message could be sent. The commanding officer of the BOYD was directed to the charge of the rescue operations and did so effectively with the aid of the Minesweepers SEAL, COMPETEXT, and the amphibious vessel COMSTOCK, the ROK Navy PC705, and a helicopter. The BOYD rescued a total of 17 sailors including the commanding officer of the SARSI. Of the total crew of 96 men, 92 were rescued, and only four were listed as missing. Of these four, two were known dead.
During the salvage operations the following day, the BOYD was directed to patrol the area and lend gunfire support. On 30 August, while small boats fitted with minesweeping gear for sweeping the shallow water were making SW OPS over the area, the ships in the salvage force were taken under fire by shore batteries. The BOYD opened counter-battery fire while laying an effective smoke screen for the small boats enabling them to escape further fire. On one occasion that day, the BOYD was fired on and returning fire, scored two direct hits on enemy gun situated in a cave, with the first two shells. The BOYD was commended by Commander Task Group 95.6 for the excellent gun fire support.
The BOYD departed from Sasebo on 25 September and arrived at the Hungnam, Korea, on 26 September and resumed her duties as the before, continuing the UN effort in Korea by interdiction, gun fire support, blockading, as well as patrolling the Korean East coast. Variety came in the form of watching at night for trains at Uiho-ri as well as Ch’oho. On the night of 2 October, in response to a call from an Air Force plane, which had stopped two communist supply trains on the east coast main supply route near Yongso-ri, the BOYD laid off with 9000 yards of the island fortress of Mayang-do which was believed to have radar controlled shore batteries and bombarded the two trains with the Air Force plane commander spotting for the ship. With the BOYD firing destructive shells and illuminations shells and the plane spotting the hits, 17 direct hits were scored on one train and several hits were scored on the second, causing numerous fires and explosions.
After departure of the Air Force plane, the BOYD fired illumination shells for two more planes that were called into finish off the trains. For this action the BOYD received a "well done" from the commander Seventh Fleet.
On 4 October, 25 North Korean refugees were picked up from a sanpan off Mayang-do where they had been reported afloat by TF 77 planes. On 7 October the BOYD was anchored at sea off Hungnam when a plane was reported down off the nearby beach. The BOYD proceeded immediately to the scene, but the pilot was rescued by a helicopter. Returning to the anchorage in Hungnam, a plane crashed about a mile in front of the BOYD and the ship proceeded to the spot where the pilot had parachuted to the water. During the rescue the pilot was dragged beneath the water by his parachute and heroic rescue was made by P.P. McKEE, MR3 USN, of the DesRon 15 staff for which he was commended for the Navy and Marine Corps Medal. All attempts to revive the pilot failed and his body was delivered to the USS COMSTOCK at Wonsan.
On 11 October, the BOYD was relieved and proceeded to join the newly formed Task Force 71 and later Task Force 76 which staged the amphibious demonstration off Kojo, Korea. During the next four days, the BOYD was on barrier patrol off the "landing beaches". The BOYD returned to Wonsan on the 16th of October and resumed her blockade duties.
After being relieved of duties in Task Force 95 on 19 October, the BOYD proceeded to Yokosuka, Japan for an upkeep and recreation period, arriving on 21 October. On 4 November, the BOYD departed Yokosuka with 10 other ships and two submarines on a hunter-killer exercised. Approximately two weeks was spent by the BOYD on various submarine exercises, commencing with the basic elementary phases and progressing through "final examination" utilizing the latest methods and material presently available in anti-submarine warfare. During the period 7 through 9 November 1952, the BOYD made a visit to Chi Chi Jima, in the Bonin group. This was the BOYD’s first friendly visit to the island, on two previous occasions the BOYD participated in attacks on the island while it was occupied during World War II.
Upon detachment from the hunter-killer group on 15 November, the BOYD with the other components of the DesDiv 151 proceeded to Kaoshiung, Formosa arriving on 16 November. The BOYD’s duty consisted to training Chinese Nationalist naval personnel and patrolling the seas between China and Formosa in support of the US – Formosa policy. From 3 December to 6 December, the BOYD crew enjoyed a three-day recreation stay in Hong Kong – the shippers’ Mecca in the Far East, where the crew accumulated a full stock of oriental goods at prices of varying degrees of reasonableness for the holiday season, which was close at hand. On 11 December, the BOYD departed from Kaoshiung, and after a brief stop in Keelung, Formosa on 12 December proceeded to Yokosuka, Japan and arrived on 15 December for an upkeep and recreation period.
Following a Christmas party for a group of Japanese orphans, BOYD sailed from Yokosuka on 26 December 1952 enroute to rendezvous with Task Force 77 in the Sea of Japan. BOYD joined up with Task Force 77, along with the other ships of DesDiv 151 on 28 December. Screening the large aircraft carriers as well as occasional cruisers and battleships, coupled with numerous anti-aircraft drills, replenishment and refueling at sea occupied the crew until 26 January 1953. The only variety (if it could be termed as such) or deviation from the previous tour in September of 52 experienced by the crew of the BOYD was the bitter cold, frequent heavy seas and occasional snow and ice.
BOYD arrived in Sasebo, Japan on 28 January for a two-day period of voyage repairs in preparation for the long journey home and necessary “last chance” purchases in Japan.
BOYD departed Sasebo on 30 January, and put into Midway on 5 February 1953 for fuel, departing for Pearl Harbor after a few hours in port. BOYD arrived in Pearl Harbor on 8 February, receiving he customary welcome from hula dancers and the Honolulu press. BOYD departed Pearl Harbor on 10 February 1953, climaxing her second successful tour in the Japanese / Korean area operations in the support of the United Nations actions against enemy Communist Forces.
For their effort during this second tour of duty in the Korean area, the Commanding Officer, Commander F.B/ CLARKE, USN was recommended for the Bronze Star Metal and the Executive Officer, Lieutenant Commander G.W. RINGENBERG, USN was recommended for the Commendation Ribbon with Combat Distinguishing Device.
During the first month back in the states, the BOYD had a leave and upkeep period. Once this period was over, the ship started on a strenuous training schedule that included gunfire support training, services to submarines, air defense exercises, plane guard for carriers, type training, anti-aircraft practice and anti-submarine training.
During the period of training in continental United States, the BOYD operated off the southern coast of California, training to attain the high condition of readiness required for combat. On 24 August the BOYD left San Diego to join Task Force 52, to participate in DESTRAEX, and in the Seattle Sea Fair. Commander Destroyer Squadron FIFTEEN was embarked, action as screen commander. On 1 September the task Force entered Seattle and conducted the Sea Parade, an impressive column of ships, many miles long, which toured the entered harbor while conducting precision maneuvers for the benefit of the observing public. The BOYD remained in Seattle until, 3 September, her officers and men participating fully in the famous annual celebration. On 3 September the BOYD departed Seattle with the Task Force and spent the next several days taking part in various exercises while enroute to San Diego. The remainder of her stay in the United Sates was devoted to vigorous training in preparation for her future coming tour in the Far East. On 5 October the BOYD, with other ships in DesDiv 151, departed for her third tour of duty in WestPac to the strains of “China Night” being played by CruDesPac band.
Even while enroute, training exercises were being conducted every day. There were brief layovers at Pearl Harbor and Midway Island, with Commander F.B. CLARKE being relieved as Commanding Officer by Commander R.M. HARRIS, at Midway, after a highly successful tour of duty. On 29 October the BOYD arrived at Yokosuka, Japan for an upkeep period, and departed on 5 November for two weeks with Fast Carrier Task Force 77. Upon leaving Task Force 77 the BOYD put in at Sasebo, Japan for liberty and recreation, leaving on 21 November for a week of R&R. She then proceeded to Yokosuka for a brief layover and left on 30 November with a hunter-killer group to conduct anti-submarine warfare exercises for the next ten days, upon completion of which she enter Kobe, Japan for rest and recuperation.
Departing Kobe on 17 December, BOYD, with the other ships of DesDiv 151 proceeded to the coast of Korea to perform patrol duties. Pusan, Korea (Outer harbor) was the anchoring place for the BOYD the second night out. Also on that date, Commander Destroyer Squadron FIFTEEN embarked in BOYD, assumed duties as Commander Task Group 95.2. December 25, Christmas Day, found the BOYD serving turkey dinners to the Marine personnel attached to Korean Army Units at the demarcation line of the demilitarized zone in South Korea.
All hands had a ‘White Christmas’, the hills of Korea being covered with snow. December 26-28 BOYD conducted shore-bombarding exercises. Exercises over, the BOYD departed the area for Sasebo, arriving 29 December. The New Year came in with the BOYD in good spirits, the upkeep and recreation period continuing until 3 January 1945.
The second tour, and last of this tour of FarEast duty, with the fast carrier task force (Task Force 77) commenced on 4 January. At 2053, DesDiv 151 was detached from the Task Force to perform an SAR Mission. A P2A, patrol aircraft with 7 Navy men in the crew, had signaled they were in trouble before crashing somewhere in the waters between Korea and China.
DesDiv 151 raced to the area at 30 knots, arriving in record time in the area in which the aircraft was believed to have crashed. The search commenced immediately at the Latitude 34-30 N, Longitude 125-30E. Along with DesDiv 151, assisting in the search were the AMS’s PELICAN, SWALLOW and MORGANER, plus the USS DEVESTATOR (AM318) and the Canadian HMCS HURON (DDE216). The YARNEL sighted and empty liferaft near an island of the Cheju group the morning of 6 January. Immediately, a spiral search was commenced in that area. At 1:44 that afternoon, the TINGEY picked up a dead airman.
The BOYD dispatched a motor whaleboat party to interrogate fishing craft and inhabitants of a island nearby. Translations were provided by ROK officer LEE RONG HI, who was attached to BOYD for training. Results of the interrogation were negative. However, the visiting party, being the first Americans to visit the island in recent history, was greeted by the native populace and the MC DIR MUT recovered one dead airman. The SAR was discontinued January 7, and DesDiv 151 was detached to proceed to Subic Bay, Republic of the Philippines for Shipyard availability and recreation.
Out of the cold and into the tropical weather of Subic Bay (Latitude 5 degrees North), the BOYD personnel enjoyed the warm climate of the Philippines from January 14 to 23rd.
The Formosa Straits Patrol Duty was next for the BOYD. Departing Subic Bay January 24th, he Division proceeded to Kaoshiung, Formosa, to prepare for the patrol. The BOYD took part (January 26 to February 14) in training Chinese Nationalist Navy Personnel, and in the Northern Patrol.
The topic of conversation as the BOYD departed Kaoshiung, Formosa, 14 February, was the usual highlight of the Far Eastern tour, the visit to Hong Kong. The 3 days (Feb 15-17) in the British Colony, was many suits, souvenirs etc, purchased by BOYD personnel.
February 18, the BOYD was enroute to rejoin DesDiv 151. On February 24, the BOYD rejoined DesDiv 151 in the area GEORGE and the division proceeded to Sasebo, arriving there that afternoon. The BOYD remained in Sasebo fro 24 February to 28 February.
The BOYD, with DesDiv 151, departed Sasebo 1 March to take part in the Fleet exercises off the coast of Southern Japan. Included in the training was an atomic defense exercise and air defense exercises. The BOYD with the division left the formation and proceeded to Sasebo Harbor, Japan, on 5 March.
Nagasaki, Japan, the site of one of the atomic bomb blasé, was the port to which the BOYD sailed on 15 March. Liberty and recreation was the purpose of the 4 days, which the BOYD spent in that port. At the conclusion of 19 March, the BOYD returned to Sasebo.
Firing exercises for the division were scheduled for 29-31 March. On the 29th, the BOYD got underway for area GEORGE to conduct training exercises. Both sleeve and sled firing were conducted firing the 3-day period.
The BOYD returned to Sasebo 1 April and after a short stop of 2 days sailed for Yokosuka for tender availability prior to returning to the United States. DesDiv 151 and the USS TOLEDO (CA133) departed Yokosuka enroute to CONIUS via Midway and Pearl Harbor. The USS PRAIRIE (AD15) joined the formation in Pearl Harbor. On May 1, the Division entered San Diego Harbor having successfully competed the third tour of duty in the Far East.
Leave and recreation was again the order of the day for the crew. On 24 May, all hands returned aboard to take the ship to San Francisco. After arriving at Treasure Island, the BOYD underwent an electronics interference test; fuel and ammunition were later off loaded.
May 29, the BOYD moored on the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California.
The overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard was of approximately three months duration. During this overhaul the alterations included Meredith the messing facilities, renovations of the wardroom, and various other habitability improvements. After completing sea trials during the last week of August, the BOYD departed for San Diego and refresher training. Refresher training consisted of three weeks of intensive training in every phase of modern warfare and culminated in a final battle problem, which was successfully passed. Refresher training was followed by a week of upkeep and then more training. On 22 November, DesDiv 151 (Including the BOYD) went alongside the PARIRIE (AD15) for two weeks of availability. At the end of these two weeks, on 16 November, BOYD, in the company with the rest of DesDiv 151, departed CONUS for her fourth cruise to WESTPAC since recommissioning.
After spending four months at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, the officers and crew of the BOYD readied themselves to answer the call of sail. The call came as anticipated and the BOYD, flagship of DesRon 15, departed from San Diego, California on the morning of 16 November 1954 to the strains of “Anchors Aweigh: provided by the CRUDESPAC band.
The musical send-off provided a fitting cruise theme as the men of the BOYD began carefully plotting the 1954-55 deployment. Beginning the cruise as relatively unpracticed sailors or novices unable to acquire correct harmony in Naval duties, the men of the BOYD soon undertook the labors of the developing themselves into a symphonic organization to able to handle the arduous task that were to be assigned them.
As Task Unit 52.3.6 the BOYD and other members of DesDiv 151, USS TINGEY (DD 539), YARNALL (DD 541), McDERMET (DD 677) made their way from San Diego to Pearl Harbor, T.H.., on the first leg of their western travel. Task Unit 52.3.6 arrived in Pearl Harbor 22 November. The BOYD celebrated Thanksgiving in Honolulu before departing on 29 November for Midway Island.
The USS NAIFEH (DE 352) joined DesDiv 151 for the trip to Midway. The NAIFEH came under the rugged training program conducted by COMDESDIV 15 and his ships. Such things as communications frills, plotting exercises on conditions firing were all a part of the necessary preparation for the BOYD and her sister ships.
2 December 1954 marked two milestones in the BOYD’s travels. The BOYD arrived at Midway Island, which gave all hands a chance to go a shore and observe the zany antics of the island’s “gooney birds”. At 2120 the BOYD, underway for Yokosuka, Japan, crossed the International Date Line and thus made her crew eligible for membership in the honorary Golden Dragon Society.
After turning back the clock a number of times, the BOYD finally arrived in Yokosuka on 9 December. A five-day stay in Yokosuka served as a brief period for the ship improvement and recreation. The BOYD was sided in the former endeavor by the USS FRONTIER (AD 25). The letter was well taken care of by the men of the BOYD themselves.
The operation order read that after Yokosuka the division was to proceed to the Philippine Islands. On 18 December the BOYD moored in tropical Subic Bay, P.I.
One of the cruise’s highlights was the Christmas voyage to exotic Thailand. After spending a night anchored in the Gulf of Siam, the BOYD navigated up the Choa Phraya River and moored at Klogh Tol warf in Bangkok on 23 December. The Royal Thai Navy Band was on had to greet DesDiv 151 and add color and excitement to this unusual and interesting trip.
Celebration of the Christmas season in Bangkok included sightseeing trips, picture taking and many invitations to Christmas dinners from local inhabitants. DesDiv 151 completed this successful visit 28 December and sadly left Thailand for sea.
New Years Eve was spent in the warm surroundings of Subic Bay. In the Naval tradition the first log of the new year was written in verse and read in part:
Philippines Island, Subic Bay is the spot.
With number nineteen, the birth, like as not.
Moored in a nest to DIXIE AD Fourteen,
SIX Standard mooring lines fore and aft can be seen.
After this peaceful stop, the BOYD sailed to carry out its ever-present training program on 3 January 1955.
Task Force 77, a fast carrier force, was strengthened by the BOYD and DesDiv 151 on 6 January. After a number of air and other operations, the force sailed to Manila and a weekend rest.
Upon being detached from task force 77 on 15 January, the BOYD headed for Buckner Bay, Okinawa to participate in anti-submarine training. During this training the BOYD was called upon to join a large Seventh Fleet task force assembled for the protection of the Tachen Island evacuation. From 22 January to 2 February men of the BOYD faithfully manned their battle stations, ready to carry out their assigned mission. Past practice and training proved to be of essential value during this tense operation.
The first weeks in February were spent in Sasebo, Japan, moored to the repair ship USS HECTOR (AR 7), preparing the ship for its future activities. On February 15 the BOYD left Sasebo for Formosa to take over duties patrolling the Chinese Strait.
When not actually engaged in patrol duties, the BOYD was busy training the Chinese Nationalist Navy, in the port of Kaoshiung.
The British Crown Colony of Hong Kong was a bright but expensive stopping point for the BOYD. This stop lasted from 12 – 15 March during which time the bargain filled town lured the eager BOYD shoppers. A familiar cry of “I Can’t afford not to buy” was a phrase adopted by all hands.
Economic crisis plagued the BOYD personnel upon their departure from Hong Kong. A two-week availability in Sasebo promised to offer little relief. The BOYD spent the period 19 March t 4 April alongside the USS DELTA (AR 9) receiving her medications for equipment casualties and services for shipboard necessities.
After a period of conducting training exercises, the BOYD spent a short time with Task Force 77. On 16 April, the BOYD was detached from the Task Force and reported to Yokosuka t conduct anti-submarine training.
In preparation for the final departure from the western pacific area, the BOYD spend 1-6 May moored in Yokosuka.
6 May at 0800, the BOYD left Yokosuka on its return trip to the U.S. Through no bands were present to bid DesDiv 151 a “bon voyage” there, never-the-less, seems to be music in the air and the date 22 May 1955 (the scheduled arrival date of the BOYD in San Diego) was much a topic of conversation.
The usual stops at Midway and Pearl Harbor were made before Point Loma came into view.
The men of the BOYD had completed another successful cruise to the Far East. Many men saw themselves transformed from mere “boots” into sailors. All could quote the rate of exchange of ticuls in Thailand, pesos in Manila, Hong Kong dollars, yuan in Formosa or yen in Japan. All realized the full meaning of a prepared Naval Force. And all, though grateful for the experience and training, were glad to be back in San Diego.
After a month leave and upkeep period, the BOYD commenced four months of type training and ISE in the San Diego area, including six weeks of Destroyer Qualifications, which period was climaxed by hectic two days of Operational Readiness inspection. On November 7, the BOYD put to sea to participate as screen flagship for a large scale Pacific Fleet Training Exercise. However, on the night of November 9, 1955, the BOYD was struck on the port side, just aft of amidships by the Japanese freighter, Tamon Maru. Flooding of the after engine room and contain adjacent areas resulted. Prompt action by damage control parties prevented progressive flooding, and the ship was towed into port by a large fleet tug. After off-loading fuel and ammunition, the ship was placed in dry-dock at the Naval Repair Facility, San Diego, for repairs to the collision damage, a project estimated to take five months.
On 23 November 1955, CDR KENETH C. SIMMONS relied CDR RAYMOND M. HARRIS as commanding officer.
Repairs of the collision damage were completed on April 14th, 1956. On Sunday, April 15, an open house was held on board, honoring the workmen of Naval Repair Facility, San Diego, for the fine job they did putting the ship back in operating condition. After a two-week period of shakedown, the BOYD left San Diego on April 28 to join the rest of the division in the Far East.
During the two months the BOYD was in WestPac, the crew had liberty in Guam, Okinawa and Yokosuka, Japan. On June 1, ComDesRon 15 broke his flag on the BOYD and the ship again assumed its accustomed role as flagship of the Squadron.
A month of rest and recreation awaited the BOYD on its return to San Diego on July 1, accompanied by the rest of DesRon 15. Then on July 30 the ship entered Long Beach Naval Shipyard for its biennial overhaul. Three months later the ship was ready for sea again, sporting many new pieces of equipment and a new paint job.
After a short period of shakedown, the ship entered the arduous phase called Refresher Training, at San Diego. The training grind was broken by a three-week leave period at Christmas, but commenced as mercilessly as every immediately after New Years. When it was all over, on January 11, the crew was whipped into shape and ready for this next tour of the Far East.
BOYD continued routine operations after the first of the year, concentrating on readiness for deployment to the Western Pacific.
On 11 February, in company with other units of DesDiv 151, BOYD departed San Diego enroute to Yokosuka, Japan. During this transit, stops were made at Pearl Harbor and Midway for logistics and fuel. On arrival in Japan, with time out for voyage repairs, BOYD participated in the intertype exercise “Beacon Hill”.
The next port of call was Singapore where the crew enjoyed a 12-day period of rest and recuperation. After stops at Subic Bay and Hong Kong, BOYD participated in Operation “Sea Link”, a shore bombardment exercise conducted jointly with units of the Australian and Philippine Navies.
After participating in the intertype exercises “???” and “True Blue”, a stop was made in Nagasaki, Japan. Early morning BOYD returned to Yokosuka in preparation for the return trip to San Diego.
Upon arrival in San Diego, the 23rd of July, BOYD found that she had been awarded the “E” for ASW excellence as well as “E’s” on two of 5”/38 gun mounts.
Following a period devoted t leave and upkeep BOYD continued training operations in the San Diego operating areas. On 14 October, Commander ALBERT G. FENLEY, relieved Commander K. G. SIMMONS as COMMANDING OFFICER. One of the highlights of the fall and winter operations was BOYD’s participation in COMFIRSTFLEET’s “STRIKEX” conducted 3-6 December.
Commencing 16 December BOYD crew enjoyed holiday leave and upkeep period extending through 6 January 1958.
Note: This history was transcribed from a old mimeograph paper and some of the names and locations were hard to decipher. If in reading this, you have more information on the names and locations, please forward them to Jerry L. Stutzman or Charles St.John.
We are also searching for additional historical information on the USS Boyd. We mostly need the history from 1958 until the ship was sold to Turkey in 1970. If you do have this information, please forward to Charles St.John. to complete the history.
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